What is the Turkism Movement, What Does It Mean and Who Are Its Representatives? Principles and Characteristics of Turkism Movement

Published by
Peter Kavinsky

He played a major role in the development of Turkish intellectuals living in Tsarist Russia. Why did the Turkism movement emerge? Who is the pioneer of Turkism thought? Here are all the details…

What is Turkism?

Turkism thought; It emerged as a result of the failure of two basic ideas, such as Ottomanism and Islamism, which emerged in order to prevent the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire. To summarize, the Turkism movement, which aims to ensure the cultural and linguistic unity of all Turkish people; continued its existence in literature, science and finally in political life.

When Did the Turkism Movement Start?

Introduced in order to ensure the political and cultural unity of the Turkish nation; The Turkism movement began to make itself felt in the Ottoman Empire from the 1880s. The Turkism movement that started to develop among the Russian Muslims in Azerbaijan, which was dependent on the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Tsarist; It marked the last period of the Ottoman Empire and was carried to politics by the intellectuals.

Why Did the Turkism Movement Emerge?

The factors affecting the emergence of the Turkism movement, which gained momentum since the 1880s, can be listed as follows:

  • The bankruptcy of Ottomanism and Islamism, which emerged to save the state.
  • The idea of ​​providing political and cultural integrity within the Ottoman Empire.
  • To create the Turkish nation by giving the Turkish people a national consciousness.

Principles of Turkism Thought

Pioneer of Turkism thought Ziya Gökalp, who is considered to be the Turkish nation, defined it as “raising the Turkish nation”, and Yusuf Akçura defined it as “the uniting of all Turks spread across Asia and Europe to establish a great political nationality”. Principles of Turkism thought are:

  • The Turkish nation should be a whole and live under a single flag.
  • In any case, the Turkish nation should live independently.
  • The traditions of Turkishness from the past should be preserved and no foreign culture should influence it.
  • Turkish nation; It should be glorified, promoted and achieved success in every field that comes to mind, such as political and economic science.

Features of Turkism

Ziya Gokalp; Turkification, Islamization, Contemporaryization and Principles of Turkism. Features of Turkism can be listed as follows:

  • All people who have grown up in Turkish culture are considered Turkish.
  • If people of different races or religions consider themselves Turkish, they are considered Turkish.
  • Spoken and written language should be combined, and the words in the language should be preserved.
  • The public’s understanding of art must go through a civilized education.
  • The higher virtues of morality must be realized.
  • The aim of Turkism should be to establish democracy and people’s government.
  • A national economy and a large industry are indispensable for being a modern nation.

Turkism Movement Representatives

Gaspirali Ismail

Gaspıralı, one of the leading figures of Turkist thought; He talked about the need for modernization of Turkish and Muslim societies in Tsarist Russia and spread his views in the newspaper Tercüman.

Yusuf Akcura

He is one of the biggest representatives of the Turkism movement. In his work, Üç Tarz-ı Siyah, he examined the Ottomanism, Islamism and Turkism movements in the Ottoman Empire.

Ziya Gokalp

Ziya Gokalp, who is considered to be the pioneer of Turkism; He wrote two major works called Principles of Turkism and Turkification, Islamization and Contemplation.

In addition to all these, Mehmet Emin Yurdakul, Hüseyinzade Ali and Ahmet Ağaoğlu, the founders of the Türk Yurdu Cemiyeti, which was founded in 1911, are among the Turkist intellectuals of the period.

Turkish Hearth, founded in 1912; It became one of the influential political centers of the period. Among the founders of Turkish Hearth, Zeki Velidi Togan, Halide Edip Adıvar, Hamdullah Suphi Turkism movement representatives exists.

Peter Kavinsky

Peter Kavinsky is the Executive Editor at cablefreetv.org

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