Which States Signed the Montreux Straits Convention?

Published by
Peter Kavinsky

The dominance of the Straits has been left to the Republic of Turkey and the international balances have changed in favor of Turkey. Who are the signatory states of the Montreux Straits Convention? Request, History of the Montreux Straits Convention All the details about…

What is the Montreux Straits Convention?

Montreux Straits Convention; It is an international agreement that abolishes the provisions of the Straits Convention signed with the Treaty of Lausanne and transfers all sovereign rights over the straits to the Republic of Turkey. outside Turkey Signatory states of the Montreux Straits Convention; England, France, Soviet Union, India, Japan, Bulgaria, Greece, Romania and Yugoslavia.

When was the Montreux Straits Convention Signed?

Montreux Straits Convention; Signed on 20 July 1936 in Montreux, Switzerland. In addition to the control of the straits, the sovereign rights of the Republic of Turkey were recognized with the agreement, which regulates the passage of merchant ships, warships and civilian ships through the straits.

Brief Summary of the Montreux Straits Convention

During the Lausanne Conference, the issue of the straits was also discussed and the Lausanne Straits Convention was signed. According to this contract, the Straits Commission was established and it was decided to demilitarize both sides of the straits in order to ensure free passage through the straits. In addition, it was stipulated that any attack on the straits would be prevented by the League of Nations, and this situation limited Turkey’s sovereign rights over the straits.

Germany’s armament in 1934, the developments in Italy and Japan’s occupation of Manchuria gradually increased the unrest in the world, and Turkey, taking advantage of these developments, informed the signatory states that it wanted a change in the status of the straits.

The signatory states met in Montreux, Switzerland on June 22, 1936, upon the positive approach of Turkey’s demands by states other than Italy and France, and at the end of the meeting, the Montreux Straits Convention was signed on July 20, 1936. Italy, which was far from the idea of ​​a convention, was included in the Montreux Convention in May 1938.

With this contract signed, it has been accepted that the Republic of Turkey is the sole authority on the straits.

The prominent articles of the Montreux Straits Convention are as follows:

  • The military defense and administration of the Straits is completely left to the Republic of Turkey.
  • The task of the Straits Commission, which was established with the Lausanne Straits Convention, came to an end.
  • In times of peace, trade ships of countries that do not have a coast on the Black Sea will pass freely through the Bosphorus. Warships have to give 8 to 15 days’ notice. Submarines, aircraft carriers and warships weighing more than 10 thousand tons will not be able to pass through the Straits. Warships that cross into the Black Sea in accordance with the principles of the contract will not stay in the Black Sea for more than 21 days. The tonnage of warships of states that do not have a coast to the Black Sea will not exceed 30 thousand tons.
  • In times of war, in the presence of a state of war, if Turkey is a neutral country, merchant ships will pass freely. But the warships of the warring states will not be able to pass through the strait. If Turkey is one of the parties to the war, only she will decide which ship can pass through the strait. Turkey can close the straits to all states if it wishes. In case of war, Turkey has the right to close the straits. In addition, according to the provisions of the contract, the records of the ships of the states passing through the strait will be shared with the international public and states.
Peter Kavinsky

Peter Kavinsky is the Executive Editor at cablefreetv.org

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